By Lucien Jaume
Sait-on encore ce qui fonde l'Europe ? Quel ordre juridique et constitutionnel les peuples européens peuvent-ils et doivent-ils adopter ? Quelle éducation doit être proposée pour perpétuer l. a. civilisation dont nous sommes issus ? C'est à ces questions que Lucien répond en menant une enquête sur l. a. nature de l'esprit européen. Ni " identité " ni " sense of right and wrong " européenne, ce dernier est bien plutôt un héritage intellectuel, artistique, spirituel et scientifique, ainsi qu'une perspective de l'esprit vis-à-vis de lui-même et vis-à-vis de los angeles société. On peut parler d'un " sens commun " qui, depuis l. a. Renaissance, a nourri et façonné nos countries aujourd'hui membres de l'Union. Entre los angeles règle et le marché, mais aussi à travers l. a. puissance (ambivalente) de l'opinion, l'esprit européen s'exprime par les créations de los angeles liberté qui se soumet aux règles et aux normes. Depuis Bossuet et Pierre Nicole, en passant par Locke et Adam Smith, pour arriver, grâce à Tocqueville, à notre démocratie d'opinion, cet ouvrage invite chacun à se remémorer le lien unique que l'Europe a forgé entre l'individu et l. a. communauté. Un recueil de textes de Locke, Bossuet, Nicole, Adam Smith, Tocqueville et Bachelard prolonge cet essai.
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Additional resources for Qu'est-ce-que l'esprit européen ?
Atran is not alone in stressing this. Johnson and Kruger, for instance, hold that: Many of our social norms developed because they promoted cooperation towards public goods in the past. These norms are often driven by religion. We suggest that the origins of these social norms may have spontaneously emerged 24 The Roots of Religion in evolution as a result of the specific selective advantages of supernatural punishment. (2004, p. 171) This emphasis on the effect of assumed observation by gods is not the only element that CSR researchers emphasize in explaining the contribution that religion makes to social coordination.
Perhaps children acquire the concept by watching adults make things happen and understand it through that experience and their own experience of causing events. I do not know that this is so. Perhaps one can learn the concept by simply watching natural events in causal patterns. In any case, regardless of how the concept of causation is acquired, it is crucial for explaining events, at least in natural languages. This seems to be presupposed in the CSR literature and is surely independently plausible.
1991, p. 3 I can, however, comment on some of them. First, the notion of a clear and precise thought is itself unclear and there is simply no hope of normal individuals seriously considering only such thoughts, much less keeping all others out of their minds. Some thoughts enter our minds because others express them (as surely Boyer would not deny), so even if we had control of what we think when alone, as social beings we find our cognitive stimuli largely uncontrollable. Second, no major religion depends on clearly inconsistent propositions, if indeed on any that are internally inconsistent.
Qu'est-ce-que l'esprit européen ? by Lucien Jaume